Słownik angielski w kuchni
English dictionary in the kitchen
To bake: To cook in an oven.
To beat: To thoroughly combine ingredients and incorporate air with a rapid, circular motion. This may be done with a wooden spoon, wire whisk, rotary eggbeater, electric mixer or food processor.
To brush: To cover food with an even layer of liquid by applying it with a pastry brush, eg brush the pastry with beaten egg or milk to glaze.
To grease: to apply a layer of fat to a surface to prevent food from sticking, e.g. grease the baking tray with butter.
Boil: To cook in a liquid at a temperature of 100°C.
Drain: To remove water from ingredients cooked in liquid or from raw ingredients that have been washed in water by placing them in a sieve or colander, eg drain the washed strawberries.
Simmer: To keep a liquid just below boiling point, usually in a pan on the hob, eg simmer the sauce until it starts to thicken.
Skim: To remove a layer of scum or fat from the surface of a food, eg skim off the surface of a liquid to remove any excess fat. Use a spoon, kitchen paper or a basting bulb to skim scum or fat.
Bake: To cook in an oven.
Dissolve: To mix dry ingredient with liquid until in solution.
Mix: To beat or stir foods together until they are combined.
Rub in: A method of incorporating fat into flour by rubbing the fat with the fingertips until it combines with the flour to form a mixture with a breadcrumb-like consistency, eg rub the butter into the flour and add enough cold water to form a smooth dough. Pastry, scones, cakes and biscuits are made using the rub in method.
Sift : To put dry ingredients such as flour or sugar through a sifter or mesh screen to loosen particles and incorporate air.
Stir: To agitate an ingredient or a number of ingredients using a hand held tool such as a spoon.
CYPRIOT RECIPES FOR OUR COOKING BOOK
Breakfast habits in Cyprus were formed through the ages in regard with the climate, the geographical characteristics of the island and the social and economical conditions of the inhabitants. The origins of the Cypriot breakfast derive from the life of the rural family, since Cypriot society until 50 years ago it was solemnly a farmers’ society. The ingredients for preparing the breakfast were coming exclusively from the produce of the family itself as the rural family used to cover almost all their needs for food and clothing by their own produce
Our traditional breakfast is consisted of
Bread was the most basic piece of food every home should possess so it was the duty of the house wife to make sure that bread is always available. For every week she had to light up the fire in the wood burning oven to bake bread. The bread was made exclusively by wheat flour and the dough usually was prepared in the evening and it should stay covered overnight in order to be ready. Traditional Cypriot Bread preparation
Traditional Bread is made the same all over the world, using flour, yeast (or sourdough), salt and water. The difference in this Cypriot bread is the starter (prozymi) and the round scoring which characterizes its shape.Ingredients
1 kg village flour
130 g prozymi
Step 1. Prozymi preparation
Prozymi meaning before (pro) and dough (zymi or zyme) is a dough we make and leave it for some days to ferment, in order to use it as a starter to make bread. Usually holy water (agiasmos) is added from a special church ceremony. In order to make prozymi, you must use a little piece from an existing piece of prozymi.
So landladies make sure that they always have a little prozymi in their freezer.
In this way:Step 2. Traditional bread preparation
1. Knead the prozymi with warm water and flour until soft.
2. Leave it for at least 4 hours to rest.
3. Use it as a starter for bread preparation.
1. Knead the prozymi with warm water, salt and flour until soft.
2. Allow to stand for 4-5 hours in a warm place.
3. After the dough is raised and thick, cut it into pieces and roll them in shape of a bal, not too round, not too flat.
4. Dip it in wet sesame
5. Shape and bake in hot oven for an hour (preferably traditional wood oven) until right colour is reached.
Complete Traditional breakfast add ons
Halloumi cheese was absolutely necessary for the breakfast table since it was together with the bread the basis of Cypriot nutrition. It’s made of sheep’s milk and it has a distinguish taste and a squeeze texture.
black or green. Green olives were particularly popular and were called “tsakistes" because they should be cracked with a stone in order not to be bitter since they were collected when they were still green
The main reason many people on the island live to a ripe old age is the Mediterranean diet which is the basis of all Greek and Cypriot food.
The mainstay of Cypriot food is olive oil, olives, an abundance of fresh fruit, salads, vegetables, fresh bread, potatoes, pulses (legumes) and fish which comes straight from the sea. Salads and mountains of sizzling chips made from the famous red potatoes grown in the red villages of the Famagusta area of the island often accompany meals in Cyprus.
The potatoes are delicious and one of the leading exports of the island. They can be used in a variety of ways and in Cyprus are often used for chips and roasts.
The traditional lunch may include lamb, pork, chicken and fish served with potatoes, pasta, rice and pulses (beans, lentils etc) which are often very simple and easy to cook.
Cypriots enjoy Kleftiko, Afelia and traditional beef dishes such as stifado and tava.
Casserole dishes are cooked with lots of olive oil (or sunflower oil) and it's customary to mop up the juice with wedges of fresh crusty bread.
Probably the most popular food on the island is the barbecued lamb and pork kebabs which are often made at home or eaten at the local taverns or restaurant. This has always been a popular fast food in Cyprus and Greece and one which many other countries enjoy.
Lunch is served around 2 o’clock at midday. Usually on Sundays Cypriot families gather together for lunch. In this way they come together, eat and communicate. A complete traditional lunch may consist of Village salad as a starter, Kleftiko as main dish and Loukoumades as dessert.
Village Saladinto thinly sliced rings, this can form the base of the salad.
4 small cucumbers
1 medium-sized onion (red onions are tastier)
1 green pepper (capsicum)
125g of feta cheese
1/2 cup of black olives
Olive oil, oregano, lemon, vinegar (All optional)
Cut the tomatoes in wedges and peel and section the cucumber. Slice the onion
Core the capsicum by cutting around the stem and cut it into slices like the onion. Build the salad up by adding cubed feta, parsley and olives to the top.
Dress with olive oil, oregano, lemon and/or vinegar (Optional).
Cypriot Recipe: Roasted Goat (Kleftiko)
Prep time: 15 minutes
Roasting time: 3 hours
Servings: 5 – 6
2 legs of goat or lamb cut in big pieces (about 3 kilos)
2 large onions, peeled and cut into big slices
12 – 14 small potatoes, peeled and slotted with a knife
1 cup of water
3/4 cup olive or sunflower oil
Freshly ground black pepper
¼ cup of lemon juice
a pinch of cinnamon
Wash meat thoroughly and place in a big baking tin. Place the potatoes around the meat, add salt, pepper.
Peel and cut the onions and place in between the potatoes. Add the oil, water and lemon. Finally sprinkle some more seasoning on top, including the cinnamon.
Bake in a preheated oven at 180 C for about 2 1/2 – 3 hours, turning once. If the potatoes seem to be sticking on the baking pan, add some more water.
Preferably you may cook it in a traditional wood oven with the baking tin covered with aluminium foil. In this case you will add half the amount of olive oil and after two hours you will remove the foil, so that it may roast.
Something to drink!
There are two breweries on the island, producing Leon,
KEO and Carlsberg.
Cyprus is one of the world's oldest wine producers, however, with the new production methods Cypriot wine is sometimes referred to as "New World wine".
The most famous wine produced is the sweet dessert wine Commandaria. The native grape varieties are Mavro and Xynisteri but others are used too.
Most of the wines are produced by monasteries, round the Troodos Mountains and production is based on traditional methods.
Zivania is a traditional Cypriot alcoholic beverage with a light aroma of raisins. It is a distillate produced from pomace, the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process, mixed with local wine. The alcohol content is typically 45 percent by volume, though up to 90 percent can be found.
Zivania is served ice-cold as an aperitif.
Loukoumades (Honey Balls)
The traditional way of making them entails scooping up a handful of batter into your clenched fist and then squeezing a walnut size amount through the gap between your first finger and thumb.
Then with a small spoon scoop up the batter.
This is then placed into a pan of very hot oil to cook for a few minutes until golden and then covered with syrup - very, very yummy!
3 cups plain flour
1/4 oz packet of easy-blend dried yeast
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon of rose water
1-1/2 cups lukewarm water
Grated zest of 1 orange 2 tablespoons honey sunflower oil
2 cups sugar, 2 cups of water and 1 stick of cinnamon
You will need a bowl or food processor (use the dough hook) and a saucepan of hot oil or a deep fryer.
Remember not to add the hot syrup to hot honey balls.
The syrup must be made before you cook the dough balls so it is cool when added.
1) Mix the flour, dried yeast, zest of an orange and salt into a bowl (or food processor)
2) Add the rosewater and lukewarm water gradually until you have a thick batter mixture
3) Cover with a clean tea towel and leave in a warm place for about an hour
or until risen with bubbles
3) Now you can prepare the syrup as it must be cool when covering the honey balls
4) Put the sugar, water and cinnamon stick into a saucepan and bring to boil.
Reduce heat and simmer for about 5 minutes
5) Divide into balls using traditional method or scoop up walnut size amounts
using a teaspoon and drop into a deep fat fryer or saucepan of boiling sunflower oil for a few minutes until golden
6) Drain onto paper towels, then place on a plate and cover with syrup then add honey, crushed walnuts and sesame seeds if desired.
There is a strong coffee culture in Cyprus with traditionally-made coffee often served in the morning. Cypriot coffee is made by mixing freshly roasted and ground beans with cold water and sugar in a briki, or coffee pot. The mixture is then bought to the boil,
which produces a creamy foam on top and is served short and black with a side glass of cold water.There are three main ways to drink coffee in Cyprus:
- Sketo – plain with no sugar, strong and bitter
- Metrio – usually with one sugar added, medium strong
- Glyko – usually with two sugars added, sweet
The Cypriot kitchen is a tasteful and exciting experience.
The food have strong colors and much fresh ingredients.
The food have a lot in common with the Greek kitchen but is also inspired from the Turkish kitchen which makes the Cypriot kitchen a exciting mix of the smaller Asian
and Balkan food.
Dinner habits varies in Cyprus. Families who come together and eat lunch may have at night a very light dinner.
Whereas families that parents work till late afternoon, then the dinner is the main event of the day as the whole family gathers together at night.
Cypriots like visiting traditional taverns especially at nights.
The most famous food in this case, is traditional meze.
Meze is consisted usually of 15 – 20 plates, including starters, main dishes (like grill souvla, afelia, keftedes – meatballs, seftalia, mousakka and many others) and traditional desserts like glika tou koutaliou (spoon sweets).
Traditional dinner meze
Souvla (big pieces of grilled meat)
Souvlakia (small pieces of grill meat)
Glyko Karydaki (Walnut Sweet)
Glyko Karpouzi (Watermelon Sweet)
Daxtila (Sweet fingers)
1200 gr chickpeas
2 garlic cloves
3 spoons olive oil
3 tspn tahine
1 tspn salt
1/2 tspn pepper
parsley, finely chopped
3 spoons water
5 spoons fresh lemon juice
Boil them until they become tender and then drain them.
Let them cool. Use a bowl to dissolve the tahine in the water.
Place the chickpeas in a blender and while mixing add the salt,
pepper, the tahine, olive oil, garlic and the lemon juice.
Continue mixing until mixture become creamy in texture.
Serve cold and garnish with parsley. Add paprika optionaly.
Soak the chickpeas in water for at least 12 hours.
B) TACHINI (SESAME SEED DIP)
6 garlic cloves chruched
2.5dl lemon juice
2.5dl parsley chopped
2.5dl cold water
4-5 black olives
Add the lemonjuice, water and oliveoil slowly.
Stir until thickens. Serve in small bowels.
And garnish with the olives and parsley.
C) TARAMOSALATA (FISH ROE DIP)
1.75dl taramas (fishrow)
3dl wetted bread
1 garlic clove (finly shopped)
parsley finly shopped
Put the Tachini, garlic and salt in a bowl and stir.
D) TZATZIKI (YOGURT AND GARLIC DIP)
If the Taramas is not ready in a jar , put it in fingerwarm water for 10 minutes to de-salt. Rinse well. If it is Tarmas from a jar crush good until creamy. Put in a bowl and mix with the bread, lemonjuice and oliveoil whip thurely until you get a thick nice cream. Garnish with parsley and maybe some black olives.
3dl strained yoghurt
3 garlic cloves
1tlsp olive oil
Pepper & salt
Grate the garlic and mix it with salt and vinegar.
Peel the cucumber, grate it and squeeze it until all its water is removed.
Put the yoghurt into a bowl and add the cucumber into it.
Then mix the yoghurt with the mixture of grated garlic.
Whiz the content until all the ingredients are well mixed.
Add some oil. Yoghurt dip can be served in a normal temperature
but it is rather preferred cold.
A) AFELIA (pork cooked in wine and crushed coriander seeds)
1kg boned lean pork, diced
2dl red wine
1-2 tablespoons coriander seeds, crushed coarsely salt and lots of freshly ground black pepper stick cinnamon
6 tablespoons sunflower or vegetable oil
1. Marinate the meat in the wine and spices for at least 4 hours,
overnight if possible.
2. Lift the meat out of the marinade and dry on kitchen paper.
Keep the marinade for later.
3. Heat the oil in a heavy-based casserole and brow the cubes of meat
a few at a-time, until all are crisp and brown. Add more oil if necessary.
4. Wipe any excess oil from the pan and return all the meat.
Pour over the marinade and enough cold water to just cover the meat.
Cover the casserole with a lid and cook gently, either in the oven
or on top for about 30 minutes or until the meat is tender.
5. Almost all of the liquid should have evaporated to leave a thick sauce.
If necessary cook the afelia uncovered for a further 10 minutes
to reduce excess liquid.
B) KEFTEDES (MEATBALLS)
1kg minced beef
2 onions, grated
1 teacup olive oil
2-3 slices bread
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
1 clove garlic
Oil for frying
3 teacup tomato sauce
Place the minced meat in a bowl and add the eggs, the parsley,
the garlic and the grated onions. Soak the bread and squeeze
excess moisture. Add it to the meat mixture along with salt and pepper.
Mix all the ingredients well. Make small round shapes and flatten them
by hand until they are about one centimeter thick.
Coat the meatballs lightly with flour and fry them in very hot oil.
C) MOUSAKKA (GREEK LASAGNA)
700gr minced lamb
150ml olive oil
1tsp ground allspice
1tsp chopped parsley
425ml bιchamel sauce
Ground black pepper
large pinch grated nutmeg
75gr Cheddar cheese
Wipe, top and tail, but do not peel the aubergines.
Cut them into slices about 6 mm. (thick.
Put into a colander with a light sprinkling of salt between
the layers and leave to drain for half an hour.
Peel and slice the onions: peel, de-seed and chop the tomatoes.
When ready to cook, pat the aubergine slices dry with paper.
Heat 3tbsp oil in a frying pan over a low heat and, when hot,
fry the aubergine slices gently until tender, in batches, turning once.
Lift out and drain on absorbent paper. Add extra oil between
batches as necessary. When all are fried, make the oil in the pan
up to 30 ml. again. When this is hot, fry the onions gently
for about 5 minutes, until soft and pale gold. Add the meat and fry.
Add the tomatoes, allspice, parsley and salt and pepper to taste.
Stir well, cover and cook very gently for 25 to 20 minutes.
Heat oven to 180 C., gas mark 4. In a deep, ovenproof dish,
arrange alternate layers of aubergines and meat, finishing with aubergines.
Warm the sauce over a low heat. Separate the egg and, off the heat,
stir the yolk, nutmeg and salt and pepper to taste, into the sauce.
Reserve the egg white for use in another dish.
Pour the sauce evenly over the surface of the dish.
Grate the cheese over the sauce.
Bake in the oven for 45 minutes until the topping is golden and bubbling.
D) SEFTALIA (GRILL MEATBALLS)
500gr Finely ground fatty pork
500gr Finely ground veal or lamb
1 Onion finely chopped
1dl Finely chopped parsley
250gr Panna (caul fat from pig)
Combine pork with veal or lamb, onion, parsley, salt and a generous
grinding of black pepper. Dip panna into a bowl of warm water
for a minute or two, remove and carefully open out a piece at a time,
laying it out flat on work surface. Cut with kitchen scissors into
pieces about 10 cm square. Take a good tablespoon of meat
mixture and shape into a thick sausage about 5 cm long.
Place towards one edge of piece of panna, fold end and sides over
meat and roll up firmly. Repeat with remaining ingredients. Thread
sausages on flat sword-like skewers, leaving space between them.
Number on each skewer depends on their length.
Cook over glowing charcoal, turning frequently.
Do not place too close to heat as sheftalia must cook fairly
slowly so that the inside is well cooked and the outside nicely
browned without being burnt. The panna melts
during cooking, keeping the meat moist and adding flavour.
Excessive flaring of fire can be controlled by a sprinkle
of water on the coals.
Serve sheftalia as an appetizer or a main course.
E) GEMISTA (STUFFED VEGETABLES)
8 medium tomatoes
8 medium peppers
4 medium potatoes
Spoon of sugar
Optionally: Raisins, minced meat.
Slice-off the top of the tomatoes and the peppers. Use a spoon
to remove the inside part of the tomatoes and the peppers.
Try to leave the empty tomatoes as thin as possible but be careful
not to score their skin. Save the inner part of the tomatoes
you have removed. It will be used for the stuffing.
Mash the inner tomato parts with a blender and mix half of the tomato
mash with the rice the onions (chopped), the mint,
the sugar and the parsley. Pour olive oil and boil the rice mixture.
Add salt and pepper as desired. Do not overcook the stuffing.
The rice should not be soft. It will soften later during baking time.
Stuff the tomatoes and the peppers and lid them with their tops.
Place them in a pan, surround them with the potatoes (sliced)
and pour the rest of the tomato mash. Add olive oil and bake
for about 1 1/2 hour in 180 C oven . Add water if required
during baking. Optionally: You can add raisins in the stuffing
if you desire. Also, alternatively you can stuff tomatoes
and peppers with some minced meat.
Try to experiment and create two stuffing,
one with rice and one with minced meat
and fill half of the tomatoes and peppers with each stuffing.
For the alternative stuffing just replace rice with minced
meat or use both in equal portions.
A) Glyko Karpouzi (Watermelon Sweet)
50 pieces watermelon rind
1 cup lime
3 kg. sugar
3 cups water
Peel the rind on both sides leaving only the white part.
Cut into square pieces.
Place the watermelon pieces in a bowl with water and lime for 2 hours.
Rinse very well under running water.
Boil the watermelon in a casserole until cooked.
Drain and place in water and lemon juice for 2-3 hours.
Drain and boil in the casserole with sugar, water and lemon juice
At the end add the vanilla.
Store in sterilized jars when cold.
B) Glyko Karydaki (Walnut Sweet)
100 fresh walnuts
POLISH RECIPES TO OUR COOKING BOOK
|A typical Breakfast|
|Description of Traditional Polish Breakfast |
|· Polish bread||The traditional Polish breakfast is a substantial spread with a variety of side dishes eaten with bread or toast. These side dishes could include cold meats, meat pastes, kielbasa - the polish sausage, sardines, tomatoes and sliced pickles. The favourite breakfast cheese is „”, a native cheese that can be eaten plain, with salt, sugar or honey. It can also be mixed with chives or sardines into a creamy spreading cheese. Eggs are often served as a main item, mostly soft boiled or scrambled. Various jams and preserves are popular for a quick breakfast and either coffee, milk, hot cocoa or tea are all consumed for breakfast. During cold winter months hot oatmeal, sometimes with cocoa added, is often served.Fried meats or potatoes are rarely found and emphasis is placed on variety to satisfy everyone at the breakfast table.|
|· Butter, mayonnaise|
|· Cheese, boiled eggs, ham, |
a selection of cold meats, different vegetables
Tea, coffee, cocoa to drink
|KANAPKI - SANDWICHES|
|· Bread||Step 1) Cut bread into slices.|
Step 2) Spread the slices of bread thinly with butter or mayonnaise.
Step 3) Cut cheese, ham, cold meats and eggs into slices.
Step 4) Wash carefully tomatoes, leaves of lettuce, cucumbers, chives and radish.
Step 5) Cut vegetables into slices.
Step 6) Choose your favorite ingredients and put on slices of bread.
Step 7) Now your sandwiches are healthy and colorful
Step 8) Eat sandwiches with a cup of hot tea, coffee or cocoa
|· Cheese, various types|
|· Butter, mayonnaise|
· Cold meats
· Tomatoes, lettuce, chives, radish, cucumbers, etc
|A typical lunch||Description|
|· The first dish- chicken broth with pasta||Traditionally, the main meal is eaten about 2 p.m. or later, and is usually composed of three courses, starting with a soup, such as popular rosół (meat broth) and tomato soup or more festive barszcz (beet borscht) or żurek (sour rye meal mash), followed (perhaps in a restaurant)by an appetizer of herring (prepared in either cream, oil, or vinegar). Other popular appetizers are various cured meats, vegetables or fish in aspic.|
The main course is usually meaty including a roast or kotlet schabowy (breaded pork cutlet). Vegetables are often served as "surówka" - shredded root vegetables with lemon and sugar (carrot, celeriac, beetroot) or sauerkraut (kapusta kiszona). The second course is also accompanied by different salads like mizeria. This chilled salad is composed of thinly-sliced cucumbers, springs of dill, and chopped onion in a sour cream and lemon juice dressing.
The side dishes are usually boiled potatoes or Kopytka - Hoof-shaped potato dumplings, Kasza gryczana - Cooked buckwheat groats.
Meals often conclude with a dessert such as makowiec, a poppy seed pastry, or drożdżówka, a type of yeast cake, Polish cheesecake, or sernik, apple tart (szarlotka)
Other Polish specialities include chłodnik (a chilled beet or fruit soup for hot days), golonka (pork knuckles cooked with vegetables), kołduny (meat dumplings), zrazy (stuffed slices of beef)
The Polish national dishes are bigos, pierogi, kielbasa, kotlet schabowy, goł±bki, zrazy (silesian rouladen), roast and zupa ogórkowa, zupa grzybowa, zupa pomidorowa, rosół, żurek, flaki, barszcz
|· The second dish - chicken in honey and herbal marinade, boiled potatoes with green dill, boiled carrots with green peas|
|· Dessert- Mazurek Różany (Rose Mazurek)|
· For drinking – Fruit compote
|CHICKEN BROTH WITH PASTA for Polish lunch|
|· Chicken||Step 1. Boil chicken in salty water.|
Step 2. Add peeled vegetables.
Step 3. Add pepper and cut the green leaves of parsley.
Eat broth with thin pasta.
|· Vegetables: |
|2-3 roots of parsley |
|1 small root of celeriac|
|a clove of garlic|
|Salt, pepper/ 120 g pasta|
|The second dish of POLISH LUNCH: |
chicken in honey and herbal marinade, boiled potatoes sprinkled with green dill, boiled carrots with green peas
|Ingredients for 4 people||Directions|
· 8 drumsticks of chicken·
|Step 1. Boiled drumsticks put into a bowl with marinade. Then put them into the oven. Cook for 15 minutes.|
Step 2. Boil peeled potatoes in salty water for about 35-40 minutes. Mash potatoes with butter and sprinkle them with dill.
Step 3. Peel and cut carrots into small slices.
Put them into the pot with salty water. Add fresh or frozen green peas. Add a pinch of sugar. Boil for 15-20 minutes.
|· marinade: 2 sp honey, herbs, salt, pepper, 2 sp ketchup|
· 1 kg potatoes
|· green dill and 1 spoon of butter|
|· 0,5 kg carrots|
|· 0,5 kg green peas|
· Salt, sugar